are transferred to animal and plant cell to get following desired
Qualitatively and Quantitatively superior animal:
genetic engineering (inserting desired gene (controlling
economically important characters) in the animal).
Gene Behaviour: Oncomice, a transgenic animal, has breast and lymph cancer
gene(oncogene), and it is used for cancer studies.
Organ transplantation from animals to human beings, for e.g. Transgenic pigs
have been developed having human cell surface protein thus
preventing the organ (xenograft) from being rejected.
Pharming & Pharmaceutical proteins or Biopharmaceuticals Production:
Transgenic animals express foreign proteins
harvested for commercial utility. Few examples are-
Hormone- Human Insulin being produced in E.coli.
Factor IX (Blood
- used for Hemophiliacs is being produced in the
milk of Sheep named Polly (PPL Therapeutics from Scotland).
- an anti-clotting protein isolated from Transgenic
Goat, Can Be used during open-heart surgery
Similarly promoter of hen egg protein used for antibody production
(by TransXenogen company)
Biomaterials are Biomolecules used for the sake of its material
properties for other than their natural uses; for e.g. Spider silks
protein (spidroins) genes have been successfully cloned in
transgenic goats and the expressed proteins are isolated from its milk
as biopolymer and spun into fibers.
Genetic Engineering, Transformation and Transgenic Plant Production:
produced by inserting desired genes of any economic importance into the
plant. Its applications are-
Qualitative and Quantitative traits in plants-
like fruit size,
shape colour etc.
From Bacillus thuringenesis for Pest Resistance Inserted Into
Cotton, Maize i.e. Bt. Cotton
Resistant Plant production-
By inserting Viral
Gene (protein) into the plant and the plant gets resistant to the virus.
Improving Nutritional properties of the plants-
Golden Rice is a transgenic plant with high Vitamin A content.
express proteins, which are harvested for commercial benefits, e.g.
Edible vaccines from vegetables, coming to market very soon.
- PHB (Poly hydroxybutyrate) gene cloned from bacteria and
inserted into Maize and Cotton. The PHB is then used as plastic raw