Medical-Pharma Biotech-Working Areas
biotechnological application for the betterment of human health it may
therefore include therapeutic cloning, molecular farming, embryo
cloning, gene therapy, xenotransplantation etc.
are the working areas and branches coming under healthcare and medical
biotechnology. They are interrelated to each other.
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology/ Biopharmaceuticals:
It includes role of the biotechnology sector as a whole in contributing
to innovation in the pharmaceutical area.
Application of biotechnology in solving problems related to medical
sciences (diseases disorders etc.), whether through gene therapy,
therapeutic cloning or animal tissue culture.
studies the molecular mechanisms of diseases, including infectious
disease, metabolic disorders, storage disorders and cardiovascular
It is the study of the causes and management of infectious diseases
caused by agents like- parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
It includes study of basic sciences pertaining to biology and medicine.
Students of Biomedical Sciences are qualified to enter the health
profession as a clinical scientist, or they can continue into research
in human health and related areas.
Applications of biotechnology in cosmetics industry include solving many
cosmetic problems related to the Skin, Aging and development of
ingredients of flavors, fragrances and pigments.
is another branch which uses principles of biophysics and other
engineering fields and apply them on medical field or healthcare.
Some other applications of biotechnology in Healthcare:
pharmaceuticals (drugs) using traditional compounds derived from plants
or botanicals instead of chemicals, e.g. isolation of anti-malarial drug
quinine from Cinchona bark.
nutritional compounds acting as drug (pharmaceuticals), e.g., vitamin C,
Beta carotene act as antioxidants and help in muscle fatigue, developing
body resistance against fighting diseases, but they also participate in
other metabolic activities.
Technique where the genetically engineered plants and animals are used
to make human proteins generally having medicinal values. These
molecules are specifically expressed and finally separated and collected
from milk, egg and blood, or plant part; For example- anti-thrombin and
tissue plasminogen are under trials used to treat blood clotting, and
edible vaccine from carrot.
Secondary Metabolite production-
through plant tissue culture technique, which are used as medicine.
We study the
effects of certain food stuffs, minerals, protiens,
carbohydrates, fats and vitamins, when consumed in excess or
in deficient quantities, on the human body.
To detect genes
responsible for the genetic disease or disorder. e.g. Genetic
– It is the
analysis of how some people are more likely to get certain diseases as a
result of their genetic make-up. It is generally done for Polygenic or
Multigenic diseases (disease where many genes play a role in whether we
get the disease or not), e.g. detection of Apolipoprotein E4, a
blood protein variant, suggested as predictor of Alzheimer’s
correcting the defective gene of an Organism by getting corrected gene
(carried with the help of recombinant DNA) into the cell of that
organism (man), e.g. SCID
Forensic Sciences and Biotechnology:
Biotechnology is used to solve criminal cases and parental disputes. It
uses following technique-
uses VNTR (variable number
tandem repeats) sequences. Here any one sequence is repeated several
times which is specific for any individual of any species. Thus VNTR
size varies among individual from different family.