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Food-Industrial Biotechnology-Working areas

Industrial Biotechnology uses microbes as well as plant and animal cells at industrial levels for our benefits. Industries covered under industrial biotechnology include - Food Processing and Preservation; Enzyme, Dairy and Alcoholic Beverage industries.

Food Biotechnology uses microorganisms, cell cultures, cloning, transgenic organisms, or recombinant DNA to produce, modify or test food. So it includes some part of fermentation technology, plant and agriculture biotechnology etc.


Working areas

  • Microbial Biotechnology: Controlled used of microbes for our benefits.

  • Fermentation Technology/Bioprocess engineering: microbes or plant or animal cells are cultured in a fermenter and either whole cells or their byproducts are used for our benefits.

    • Fermentation:

    Traditional fermentation: Beer, wine, and sprits (yeast) production

    Modern fermentation:  Single cell protein , flavors and aroma compounds, colors, antimicrobials and preservatives, enzymes, organic acids, amino acids and vitamins.

  • Microbial culture: microorganisms are cultured in an artificially prepared media and either whole microorganism or its metabolic byproducts are consumed.

  • Algal culture - Gums (Agar, Agarose, Alginate, Carageenan), Chemicals (β- carotene from  Dunailiella), Food (Single Cell Protein from Spirulina, Chlorella)

  • Bacterial culture - Production of Vitamins, alcohol, Organic acids.

  • Fungal culture for Bioconversion or Microbial or Biological    Transformation – conversion of Progesterone (cheaply and   plenteously available from Mares Urine) into Cortisol using Rhizopus culture; Antibiotics production

  • Mushroom cultivation 

  • Transgenic Microbes: developed for following purposes:

  • Hormone production- Human Insulin production by E. Coli and Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

  • Artificial sweeteners - Thaumatin a protein from Thaumatococcus danielli, which is 3000 times sweeter to sugar has been genetically engineered in E. coli and Saccharomyces

  • Metabolic Engineering - Overproduction of metabolites - by shortening or modifying (via adding and deleting genes of microbial) metabolic pathways –as a result Production Cost of the metabolites is Minimized. Other main products of industrial biotechnology are enzymes. Enzymes are used in detergent e.g. subtilisin (a protease), amylases and lipases. Only enzyme industry of world is over 4.5 billion US Dollar.

  • Genetically modified Food production- like Flavr Savr Tomato which shows delayed ripening thus prolonged shelf life; other examples, decaffeinated coffee and banana vaccine.





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