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Broadly, there are three main divisions in Nanotechnology-Nanomaterials, Nanoelectronics and Nano-Biotechnology. All major sectors, be it environment, aerospace, telecommunications, solar energy or computing, are impacted upon by Nanotechnology. This science can be used to change the properties of materials, make advances in Biotechnology or to design other products. Basically, Nanotechnology is used in computers, communication and medical-related devices. At present, though scientists are able to move molecules and atoms in a mass yet they are still not able to precisely manipulate them. But in future, nanotechnology will allow as redesign easily and create what we want exactly. Further, nanomaterials would be very light, strong, transparent, and totally different from bulk material because they are a thousand times smaller than the diameter of human hair, which is around 60 microns.
Nanotechnology has many more applications. It can help detect narcotics and fingerprints of suspects in crimes. The technology can make canonized robots and repair damaged and diseased tissues. Nanobots may be made from carbon nanotubes to carry out functions like human beings. Nano- coatings are transparent, scratch- resistant and dirt repellent. Thus, it is estimated that there will be no sector of industry which will not use nanotechnology in future.
Nanotechnology is an inter-disciplinary subject which essentially combines Physics, Chemistry, Bio-informatics Bio- technology, etc. Though the field is at present in infancy stage (started some 16 years ago in India), the country is making dedicated efforts not to lag behind after starting work in this field. As a result, there is a great demand for students who do their M.Tech in nanotechnology, because a large number of industries and laboratories in India and overseas would lab them up.
One of the fields in which Nanotechnology finds extensive applications is Nanomedicine. In this field, devices and materials, which are designed at the molecular or nano level, are used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease and traumatic injury, relieving pain and in the overall preservation and improvement of human health. These devices, designed at the nano level, have size ranging from 1 nanometre (nm) to 100 nanometres and are known as nanodevices.
In Nano-Pharmacology, biolo-gically active compounds or molecules are linked with specially fabricated nanomaterials. These are then used as probes and drugs to identify and target various abnormal cells in diseased conditions. "Smart drugs", which are new advanced nanosized therapeutic drugs, have been developed in recent times. These drugs increase the efficiency of delivering the drugs with minimal side effects.
The US is in the forefront in the world in Nanotechnology. Considerable progress in this field is also being made in Japan and Europe, In India, the CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) has set up 38 laboratories, across the country, to carry out research and development work in this field. The CSIO (Central Scientific Instruments Organization) in Chandigarh is one of the 38 laboratories set up by the CSIO.
There are many exciting new fields which will open up for the nanotechnology experts including :
1. Health Industry research and consulting- pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food and beverage, environment indus-tries.
2. Research and development in government, universities and private research institutes.
3. Entrepreneurial, management and investment advisors in biotechnology and research and development industry.
4. Product development and advising.
The eligibility criteria for studying Nanotechnology at the Post graduation level is Bachelor's Degree with major or honours in Physics, Chemistry, Life Sciences and with PCM (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) as subsidiary subjects. In order to pursue a PhD programme in Nanotechnology, one should have completed an M.Tech in Mechanical, Chemical, Electronic, Biotechnology, Computer Science etc. or an M.Sc in Physics, Chemistry, Material Science, Biotechnology, Computer Science etc.
One should have a scientific bent of mind and a natural propensity for research work, in order to study Nanotechnology, an open and enquiring mind with sound analytical and computer programming skills is a must in this field.
Postgraduate studies in Nanotechnology are offered by lIT's in the country. Postgraduate progra-mmes are also available at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. The Amity University in New Delhi offers a five-and a-half-year integrated M. Tech, course in Nanotechnology, Courses are of two years duration with a course fee of around Rs.30,000 per semester. Ph.D. programmes in Nano-technology are offered by several institutes across the country.
Presently, no course in Nanotechnology is offered at the Graduation level, in any reputed institute in India. However, the lIT's are considering the option of starting a B. Tech programme in Nanotechnology.
With a professional degree in Nanotechnology one will get job opportunities in biotech companies among several other avenues. In a biotech company, one's work profile may include the fabrication of miniature systems and devices to be used in Nanomedicine or working on a nanoparticle-based molecular system for detecting biological warfare agents. One will also find employment opportunities in large pharmaceutical companies where one will be working on the delivery process of drugs or on the development of a new therapeutic drug.
There are a lot of opportunities available in the field of research in Nanotechnology; various research programmes in Nanotechnology are funded by the Government and universities across the country.
Currently, there are around
500 companies in the market who offer nanotech products while another 150 odd institutions are involved in research work in Nanotechnology, The Government of India offers considerable support for the generation of awareness and promotion of Nanotechnology, Two schemes related to Nanotechno-logy-the Nanoscience and Technology Initiative launched by the Department of Science and Technology and the Science and Technology Initiatives in Nanotech-nology - are being promoted by the Government of lndia.
Several other work oppor-tunities are also available in Nanotechnology, apart from that of a scientist or an engineer, business development and administration, legal areas, and sales and marketing are few other areas, where one can work in the field of Nanotechnology.
With a professional degree in Nanotechnology under one's belt, one can work as a scientist, academician, biotechnologist, systems designer, research officer or product designer.
Nanotechnology impacts all major sectors like solar energy, aerospace, environment, tele-communications, computing, etc. Nanotechnology has been widely used in number of movies, television series and video games too. By the year 2015, Nanotechnology is estimated to have grown to a $1 trillion industry. It is the technology of the future.
Generally, the starting salary for one to Rs. 12,00,000 per annum. Nanotechnology is a booming industry which is expected to throw up a large number of job opportunities with handsome pay packages in the future. Remuneration can very from Rs. 60000, to Rs. 12,00,000 per annum depending upon qualification.
Here is an indicative list of universities offering nanotech-nology education, and the degrees offered in nanotechnology, Bachelor of Science in Nano-technology, Master of Science in Nanotechnology, and Ph.D in Nanotechnology.

The scope and application of nanotechnology is tremendous and mind-boggling. According to the scientists, 21st century would be the nanotechnology century. It is estimated that nanotechnology would revolutionize every area, be it medicine, aerospace, engineering, various industrial and technological areas, health or any other field. Nanobiotechnology can make tiny medical devices and sensors with fantastic military and civilian use. Converting sunlight into power, targeting a drug to a single malignant cell, cleaning ponds and creating sensors in the form of biochip, to be interested in the human body are some of the important landmark breakthroughs of nanotechnology. The technology has the potential to produce garments which can block chemical and biological weapons from touching the skin of a person.

      Educational Institutes Across India*

Amity University, Noida - Bachelors & Masters Integrated and Masters degrees.

Indian Institute of Science - Masters

Jadavpur University at Kolkata- Masters, PhD

Punjab University, Chandigarh-M.Tech, Nano Science & Nano Technology.

 The Indian Institutes of Technology at Delhi

The Indian Institutes of Technology at Guwahati

The Indian Institutes of Technology at Kanpur

The Indian Institutes of Technology at Kharagpur

The Indian Institutes of Technology at Madras.

 The Indian Institutes of Technology at Mumbai

 University of Madras, Chennai.

 List to be propagated. Keep visiting the site.

 *Recommend your Institute's information free of cost in this section of our webpage and get it hyperlinked also.


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